Type 2 Diabetes


90-95% of people with diabetes have Type 2 Diabetes, making it the most common form of diabetes.


Type 2 Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If blood glucose (sugar) levels rise higher than normal, this is called hyperglycemia. If your body does not make or use insulin well, this is called insulin resistance.


Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood.


The specific cause of Type 2 Diabetes is unknown, however many risk factors may contribute. These risk factors can include:

  • Overweight and obesity

  • Fat distribution: abdomen rather than hips and thighs

  • Physical Inactivity

  • Family history of diabetes

  • Race: Hispanics, African Americans, American Indians, Asian Americans are all at higher risk for T2DM than whites

  • Prediabetes, if not treated

  • Gestational Diabetes

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

  • Age: over 45 years old are at a higher risk primarily due to muscle loss and physical inactivity. However, there has been a recent increase of T2DM in children and young adults resulting from physical activity.


The symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes appear slowly. Some people do not notice symptoms at all. The symptoms can include:

  • Urinating often

  • Blurry eyesight

  • Thirsty more than usual

  • Feeling tired

  • Feeling hungry

  • Loss of weight without trying

  • Sores that heal slowly


Without treatment, complications can arise. These complications can include:

  • Heart and blood vesel damage

  • Neuropathy (nerve damage)

  • Nephropathy (kidney damage)

  • Retinopathy (eye damage)

  • Foot damage

  • Hearing impairment

  • Skin conditions


Type 2 Diabetes can be diagnosed through a blood test called the glycated hemogobin (A1c) test. This test shows the average blood glucose over the past 2-3 months. Many people can manage their diabetes through lifestyle changes, insulin, and oral medications.



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